Some common sense about grinding methods, principles and crushed purposes
   Pulverization means by a mechanical force to the bulk solid material broken into a predetermined degree of fineness of procedure, operation a solid drug crushed into fine powder, but also by means of other methods.
  A pulverized Objective:
  1, increasing the surface area of ??the drug, and to promote drug dissolution.
  2, to facilitate and regulate the taking;
  3, the increase of the dissolution of the active ingredient;
  4, conducive to the preparation of a variety of dosage forms, such as suspensions, powders, tablets, pills, capsules and the like.
  Second, the pulverized basic principles:
  Object formation depends on the cohesion between the molecules, and the object due to the cohesion of the different displays of different hardness and nature, therefore, the crushing process is by means of the external force to partly destroy the cohesion between the molecules of matter, to achieve pulverized purpose, about the mechanical energy is converted into the process of the surface energy.
  Difficult drug pulverized, mainly depends on the structure and nature of the substance, but also closely related to the size of the external force. Crushing various mechanical action of the external force of the material to be crushed, the following types: cutting, squeezing, grinding, impact, splitting, tearing, cutting and filing.
  : Brittle drug, mosaic and thin-walled part of the rhizome organization herbs easily crushed, the drug rather than a crystal form of the drug, wood and horny structure not easily crushed.
  To avoid pulverized powder was due to increased surface energy and re-knot together, generally mixed and pulverized.
  Crushing freedom: the separation of fine powder at any time in the process of crushing. By installing the drug screening or by air blowing.
  III crushed principle:
  1, the drug should not be excessive pulverization, to achieve the required crushing degree can. To save energy and reduce the loss of the drug in the crushing process.
  2, in the process of crushing, should be preserved as far as possible the same components and pharmacological effects of the drug. Chinese herbal medicinal parts must all be crushed applications. More difficult to smash the part, such as veins or fibers should not be thrown away, in order to avoid loss of the active ingredient or active ingredient content of the drug is relatively higher.
  3 crushed toxic drugs or strong irritant drugs, should pay attention to labor protection, in order to avoid poisoning. Crushed flammable and explosive substances, should pay attention to the fire and explosion.
  4, botanicals before shredding should be dry.
  Four, crushed methods:
  (A) dry grinding
  Refers to the drugs properly dried, so that drugs in the water reduced to a certain limit (generally less than 5%) and then pulverized.
  String material: contains a lot phlegmatic, sugar or viscous resin drugs, prescriptions, such as Rehmannia, longan meat, cornus, Polygonatum odoratum, aspartame, Ophiopogon. Crushed when the first small viscosity prescription drugs mixed crushed into the rough at the end, and then gradually mixed with the viscous drug, crushed into irregular blocks or particles below 60 ≧ fully dried and then crushed.
  String oil: prescription containing a lot of grease drugs, such as walnuts, Zaoren, Bozi etc.. Crushed when the first the friable prescription drugs crushed into a fine powder, and research into a paste and then grease drugs or not pounding, then doped with pulverized drug research crushed to the powder fully absorb grease so crushed and sieved.
  Steam tank: prescription drugs containing fresh animal bone chicken, venison, etc.; need steamed botanicals, such as yellow, fleece-flower root must cooking. After cooking the drug adding rice wine and other concoction liquid such accessories, blended with other drugs, dried, and then pulverized.
  (B) wet grinding
  Means adding an appropriate amount of water or other liquid to the drug, and thereto triturated pulverized.
  1 water fly Law: cinnabar, pearls, calamine. (With a ball instead of this method)
  2, add fluid grinding method: camphor, borneol, menthol.
  (C) cryogenic grinding
  1, under normal temperature pulverizing difficult, low softening point, low melting point thermoplastic materials, such as resins, gums, dry extract.
  2, high sugar content, with some sticky materials.
  Containing volatile ingredients.
  4, the heat-sensitive materials.
  (D) ultrafine grinding
  The material crushing particle size in micron or micron level and below. This can increase the poorly soluble drugs, dissolution, improve efficacy, and to create conditions for the transformation of dosage forms.
  V. crushed ways:
  (A) mixing crushed: generally adopted. Allows simultaneous crushing and blending operations.
  (B) a separate smash:
  1, oxidative drugs and reducing drug.
  2, valuable fines medicine: bezoar, antelope horn.
  The 3, irritation drugs: Chansu,.
  4, containing toxic components: Xinshi, Nux vomica, realgar.
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